Blood is the essence of life. It is useful to examine live blood under a microscope to look for any changes in reaction to a stressor. In this exploratory study, four healthy human subjects were exposed to microwave radiation from a Wi-Fi router placed in an adjacent room. Their
blood was examined under a dark-field microscope to look for changes, if any, compared to baseline (no exposure), following exposure for 10 minutes to the radiation, and again following exposure for another 10 minutes either with Travel Bloc (Device A) or a sham (Device B).
Subjects did not place their hands inside the device, nor did they touch the device.
This is an exploratory study to look for a protective effect on the blood from the active Travel Bloc device compared to an identical but inactive sham device. Results showed that the active Travel Bloc
produced protective effects on the blood, with less rouleaux, reduced non-specific blood cell aggregates, reduced fibrin formation, and increased white blood cell motility, while sham effects on the blood were negligible.
1. Does the Travel Bloc device help protect human subjects from adverse blood changes seen upon exposure to microwave radiation from a 4G Wi-Fi router?
Previous pilot studies showed that humans exposed to a Wi-Fi modem/router for 10 minutes, switched on, but not downloading nor uploading data, showed adverse changes in the blood as seen via dark-field live blood analysis (Rubik, 2021; Rubik 2022). The present study was conducted to look for an effect of the Travel Bloc device compared to an identical but inactive sham or placebo device. Subjects did not place their hands inside the device, nor did they touch the device, which was placed approximately 2 meters from the subject. The study was randomized, blinded, and sham-controlled. A technique called live blood analysis or whole blood microscopy was used. Peripheral blood samples taken from subjects’ fingertips were placed on glass slides under a dark-field microscope, photographed, and scored by a trained research microscopist using a Likert scale for (0 to 4, with 4 being the maximum), for each blood parameter. These data were analyzed and compared to determine which of various blood morphologies may have changed in relation to the exposure condition. Because the sample size (N=4 subjects) was very small, only descriptive statistics were employed.
Subjects were healthy adults consisting of 2 males and 2 females ranging from 43 to 81 years of age, with a mean age of 64 years. An older population was deliberately selected because previously the researcher discovered that older adults showed more adverse effects to wireless radiation as observed in the blood. The same 4 subjects had been tested previously in 2021 using the Leela Quantum Bloc device. None of the subjects had a diagnosis of electrosensitivity.
Live blood analysis involves examination of a small droplet of fresh capillary blood typically taken from the fingertip. This is observed under an optical microscope at magnifications from 600 to 1200x. A camera mounted on the microscope records digital photographs of the blood samples. This technique provides information on the ecology of the blood, sometimes referred to as the “biological terrain.” It is a research tool sometimes also used in holistic health assessment. The size, shape, variability, and cellular integrity of the red blood cells (RBCs) can readily be seen, as well as any stickiness and aggregation of the RBCs. The presence and relative number of white blood cells (WBCs) are noted, along with the motility (movement) of these cells. The blood plasma is checked for relative values of platelet aggregates, the formation of early fibrin (< 10 minutes), the presence of microbial and parasitic forms, as well as particulates including cholesterol, crystals, and contaminants.
This study utilized a custom-built, dark-field microscope attached to a digital video camera system with zoom lens linked to a computer monitor. Software was used to capture and store microphotographs for subsequent analysis. The blood specimen was lit by means of light delivered through fiber optics attached to the microscope condenser to prevent sample heating. A sterile lancet was used to collect a droplet of peripheral blood from the fingertip, which was immediately placed on a glass microscope slide covered with a glass cover slip. Oil immersion lenses at the microscope objective and dark-field condenser were used for image optimization.
Subjects fasted for at least 5 hours and refrained from exposure to cell phones and other wireless devices for 2 hours prior to individual appointments. They were tested on different days at the same time of day for Device A and Device B, the two test devices. During the fasting period and the experimental session, subjects were allowed to drink only filtered water freely. Each subject was given 3 blood tests associated with 3 different exposure conditions as described below. Each blood sample was evaluated and scored for five different blood morphological parameters. These include the state of aggregation of the red blood cells, including rouleaux formation (cells stuck together in rolls); clumping into nonspecific aggregates; red blood cell membrane distortion or shape changes; presence of early fibrin; and white blood cell motility. These 5 blood parameters had been observed to be affected by exposure to wireless radiation in previous studies. A Likert scale from 0 to 4 was used to score the relative level of each parameter, in which 0 indicates none present, and 4 indicates the maximum level.
Three blood tests were performed on each subject as follows: (1) initially, prior to Wi-Fi exposure (baseline condition), for which the radiofrequency radiation exposure was -42 dbm (ambient level in the laboratory); (2) following 10 minutes of exposure to a 4G Wi-Fi router placed in an adjacent room, 2 meters from the subject, during which the exposure was -10 dbm; and (3) following an additional 10 minutes of exposure to the -10 dbm level of Wi-Fi while in the presence of either Device A or Device B. The researcher took extreme caution to keep the two devices at different locations separated by approximately 10 km, and built the final configuration of each device on site in the laboratory. Although the subjects were permitted to see the device in the room, placed approximately 2 meters away, they never touched either device and were kept blind as to which of the devices was active—i.e., the study was single-blinded, and also randomized (random order of testing with Device A or B, respectively). Ten or more blood microphotographs were made for each of the 3 exposure conditions for each subject.
The baseline blood tests of all subjects revealed normal healthy blood. All 4 subjects showed adverse blood changes due to Wi-Fi radiation exposure-sticky red blood cells – rouleaux and red blood cell clumping, as well as greater quantities of fibrin. The blood microphotographs and the Excel file of compiled data and calculations accompany this report.
Figure 1 compares the results with each devices, Travel Bloc and sham, during Wi-Fi exposure. The values shown are the mean values of the blood parameters of all 4 subjects for each condition.
Figure 1: Comparison of blood parameters during Wi-Fi exposure with Travel Bloc and sham. Rouleaux = roll formations of red blood cells; Aggreg = nonspecific aggregates of red blood cells; Memb Dist = membrane distortions and irregularities of shape seen in the red blood cell membranes; Fibrin = formation of early fibrin; WBC activ = relative motility of the white blood cells.
As was found previously, leukocyte (white blood cell) motility (movement) was enhanced in the presence of the active device.
Figure 2 shows the average values of blood parameters for radiation exposure alone compared to exposure with Travel Bloc. The protective effects of Travel Bloc are clear in that red blood cell rouleaux, aggregation, and fibrin formation are reduced. The greater activation of white blood cell motility is also noteworthy.
Figure 2: Comparison of blood parameters during Wi-Fi exposure alone and with Travel Bloc during Wi-Fi exposure. Rouleaux = roll formations of red blood cells; Aggreg = nonspecific aggregates of red blood cells; Memb Dist = membrane distortions and irregularities of shape seen in the red blood cell membranes; Fibrin = formation of early fibrin; WBC activ = relative motility of the white blood cells.
Figure 3 shows the average values of blood parameters for radiation exposure alone compared to exposure with the sham device.
Figure 3: Comparison of blood parameters during Wi-Fi exposure alone and with the sham device during Wi-Fi exposure. Rouleaux = roll formations of red blood cells; Aggreg = nonspecific aggregates of red blood cells; Memb Dist = membrane distortions and irregularities of shape seen in the red blood cell membranes; Fibrin = formation of early fibrin; WBC activ = relative motility of the white blood cells.
Table 1 shows the calculated values of Cohen’s d, which is a statistical measure of the effect size, in comparing the Travel Bloc to the sham device. The largest protective effects of Travel Bloc on the blood are a reduction in the level of red blood cell non-specific clumping and aggregation and in stimulating greater white blood cell motility. Smaller protective effects of Travel Bloc are found to be a reduction in both rouleaux formation and early fibrin. No significant effect of Travel Bloc on red blood cell membrane distortion over sham was observed.
Small to medium size effect
Medium to large
Results show readily observable, substantial changes in live blood morphology from short-term exposure to moderate levels of Wi-Fi radiation exposure in all of the four human subjects. RBC aggregation and stickiness as well as early fibrin were observed in live blood samples following 10 minutes of exposure to microwave radiation. The active Travel Bloc showed a visible reduction in the stickiness of red blood cells with reduced rouleaux formation and especially reduced non-specific red blood cell aggregates, reduced early fibrin formation, and increased white blood cell motility. These results indicate that Travel Bloc has a protective effect on the blood. The increased white blood cell motility may indicate a possible enhancement of immune surveillance that could be further studied. By contrast, the sham device had negligible effects on the blood parameters.
This study had important strengths and some limitations. It was a single-blinded, randomized, sham-controlled, microwave exposure-controlled study in the laboratory. Subject fasting and exposure to wireless radiation immediately before each study session was controlled, as was the time of day when subjects were assessed. An unbiased method of photographing the samples near the center of the blood specimen was used. The researcher has many years of experience in blood microphotography and developed a Likert scale to reliably score blood factors using a well-trained eye. The blood changes recorded by microphotography are objective and visually compelling.
However, it is a small, short-term study with a very small number of subjects (N=4) tested in single experimental sessions. Nonetheless, this demonstrated a protective effect of the technology on the blood following only a short exposure (10 minutes). Larger studies of this same design using an inactive sham should be conducted to expand on these results. It is estimated, but not definitive, that 12 subjects would probably yield significant results using this same research design.
Rubik B (2022) Leela Quantum Bloc shows protective effects on the blood upon human exposure to short=term Wi-Fi. Unpublished report, January 2022.
Rubik B (2021) Does the Leela Quantum Bloc protect users from short-term exposure to microwave radiation from a 4G Wi-Fi router as observed using live blood microscopy? Unpublished report, October 2021.
Rubik B. (2014). Does short-term exposure to cell phone radiation affect the blood? Wise Traditions in Food, Farming, and the Healing Arts, Vol 15(4):19 –